Historically, humans have interacted with computers or machines by manipulating computer components with their hands, which is known as “manipulation computing.” This kind of human-computer interaction (HCI), on the other hand, significantly limits a person’s capacity to communicate with machines. Over the years, many attempts have been made to develop technologies that integrate additional modes of communication, such as speech or gestures, in order to make human-computer interaction (HCI) more natural. Cognitive neuroscience advances, especially in neuroimaging technologies, have made it possible to communicate directly between the human brain and computers in the recent past. Invasive and noninvasive sensors may be used to monitor physiological processes reflected in brain waves, which can then be translated online into control signals for external devices or equipment, allowing for this capacity to be realised.
These brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) enable the direct transfer of brain impulses to an external device without the need for the brain’s muscular output to be used as a transmission medium. The majority of the time, they are utilised to assist, improve, or restore human cognitive or sensory-motor skills. BCI users deliberately change their brain activity in order to produce brain waves that can be used to control computers or other devices, as opposed to using physical movements as a means of controlling them. The development of effective BCIs and their integration into hybrid systems that combine well-established human-computer interaction (HCI) and brain control techniques will not only change how we go about our daily lives but will also improve the quality of life for those who are physically challenged. This is particularly important for people who have had serious neuromuscular injuries or neurodegenerative diseases, which may result in their being paralysed and unable to interact with their bodies via speech or gesture alone.
Recently, there has been a lot of discussion in the neuroscience community about a technology known as “brain-to-computer interfaces,” which are electric networks that can transfer a person’s brain signals to a computer, according to the New York Times. This computer may then be configured to read the signals and perform a variety of operations on them. An exoskeleton that controls the person’s limbs were utilised to record movement impulses in the brains of disabled stroke patients last year, allowing these individuals to regain control of their hands and arms.
Another possible kind of interface, known as the brain-to-brain interface (BBI), has received less attention so far, but it is still worth exploring. A brain-to-brain interface is a device that records impulses in one person’s brain and then transfers them to another person’s brain via the use of a computer. To put it another way, this method allows the second person to “read” the first person’s thoughts by having their brain activate in the same manner that the first people do.
In a BCI system, brain activity is recorded using a noninvasive neuroimaging method such as electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), or near-infrared spectroscopy, which may be used to diagnose and treat neurological conditions (NIRS). Specific invasive techniques, such as electrocorticography, are used in certain situations (ECoG). The majority of BCI systems take EEG data from the scalp, and the kind of BCI system is categorised based on the measure of brain activity that is used for BCI control. Scalp EEG data is gathered in the majority of BCI systems.
According to a new study, frequent use of digital technology has a significant impact on brain function and behaviour, both adversely and favourably, in both the short and long term. Excessive screen time and technology use may result in increased attention deficit symptoms, reduced emotional and social intelligence, technology addiction, social isolation, poor brain development, and disrupted sleep, to name a few potential negative effects. On the other side, certain apps, videogames, and other internet-based tools may be helpful to one’s brain’s overall health. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) images of internet-naive older individuals who learn to search online show significant increases in neuronal activity in their brains during simulated internet searches. Certain computer programmes and video games have been shown to enhance memory, multitasking abilities, fluid intelligence, and other cognitive abilities. Other mental health therapies that may be beneficial in the treatment of mood and behaviour are included in certain apps and digital technologies, including self-management, monitoring, skills training, and other mental health treatments.
Deficiencies in emotional and social intelligence
A recent recommendation from the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents limit screen time for children under the age of two years when the brain is at its most malleable. This recommendation stems from concerns that a young, developing brain may be particularly sensitive to chronic exposure to technology such as computers, smartphones, tablets, and televisions. When you spend a lot of time on digital media, you wind up spending less time connecting with other people in real life.
Kirsh and Mounts12 wanted to know whether playing video games affects one’s ability to identify emotions conveyed via facial expressions, and they found that it did. They investigated how students’ ability to recognise emotional facial expressions was impacted by playing video games. They tested 197 students (ages 17 to 23 years). In order to see a series of calm expressions change into either furious or happy ones, participants were required to play violent video games. While the participants’ facial expressions changed, they were asked to identify the mood in a short period of time. When it came to recognising nice faces, the researchers found that they were recognised more quickly than furious faces, and that playing violent videogame delayed the recognition of pleasant faces.
What is the outlook for BCIs in the future?
If brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are successful in reading and writing information to the brain in the future, and if individuals get used to the technology, we may see some really amazing scenarios. Imagine being able to communicate with loved ones via telepathy, having instant access to superhuman processing power, being able to relive memories and dreams, or immersing yourself and all of your senses in a virtual entertainment experience. These are all possibilities. Currently, these possibilities are having an impact on the work of researchers, technologists, and futurists.
What steps can we take right now to ensure that we are prepared for the future of BCIs?
It’s impossible to predict what will happen in the future. As BCIs and humans evolve, we should anticipate continuing dealing with philosophical problems, just as we do with current technology, which is to say, into the foreseeable future. Workers in the area are already discussing the impact of BCIs and how they could help or hinder people in their daily activities. The consequences of unresolved issues like privacy, security, and limited ecosystems are becoming more severe as technology becomes more intimate.
It is necessary to minimise AI bias.
Wearables and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) offer customers access to a wealth of data while also gathering a significant quantity of biometric and personally identifiable information about them. Companies are using the same artificial intelligence (AI) that these devices use to enhance human cognition in order to make sense of all of the data that has been gathered by them. As companies increasingly rely on artificial intelligence to automate decision-making, bias will become a far more serious problem.
In what kind of relational technology can management put his or her trust?
מכונות שיכולות להעריך את המצב הרגשי של האדם כבר פותחו במחקר קודם. דוגמה: ניתן להשתמש בגאדג’ט לניטור מדויק ובלתי פולשני של תגובת העור הגלוונית של סגן נשיא תאגידי, טמפרטורת הגוף ומידת התרחבות התלמידים, למשל. “מרי, נראה שאת מתוחה מאוד הבוקר,” יכול המחשב לומר. עליך להימנע מביצוע X בשלב זה מכיוון שהוא מזיק לארגון. “למה שלא תיתן ל Y זריקה?” אומר המחבר. מכיוון שמחשבים כל כך טובים בהערכת סוגים מסוימים של מצבים רגשיים, סביר שנראה זאת יותר במגזר העסקי בשנים הקרובות. אנשים רבים מנסים להעלים את רגשותיהם מאחרים, אך מחשבים אינם מתעתעים באותה קלות כמו בני אדם על ידי הונאה.